Since direct barter does not require payment in cash, it can be used when money is scarce, when there is little information about the creditworthiness of trading partners or when there is a lack of trust between traders. For the IRS, the exchange dollars estimated for tax purposes are identical to the actual dollars, which means that exchange agreements are considered the same as cash payments. Exchange dollars are reported as income and taxed in the fiscal year in which the exchange took place. The use of swap templates can facilitate the contracting process. A typical model for barter agreements includes the following: Modern barter and trade have become an important method to increase sales, save money, move inventory, and take advantage of excess production capacity for businesses around the world. The British Association for Promoting Cooperative Knowledge established a «fair exchange of labour» in 1830. It was expanded in 1832 as the National Equitable Labour Exchange at Grays Inn Road in London.  These efforts became the basis of the British cooperative movement of the 1840s. In 1848, the socialist and first self-proclaimed anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon postulated a system of time games.
In 1875, Karl Marx, in his critique of the gotha program of «certificates of labor,» wrote about a «certificate of society that [the worker] has accomplished this and that amount of labor,» with which «as much can be drawn from the stock of society`s consumer resources as it costs the same amount of labor.»  In addition to the $(***) of exchange travel deposited by AA under the Travel Barter Agreement, AA will deposit an additional $(***) in the execution of this letter.