Article 101(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union prohibits agreements between undertakings which have the aim or effect of restricting, preventing or distorting competition within the EU and which concern trade between EU Member States. This prohibition applies to all agreements concluded between two or more undertakings, whether they are competitors. Where it is confirmed that the parties are operating at different levels of negotiation for the purposes of an agreement and that the agreement has a `trade impact`, the procedure for assessing the vertical agreement referred to in Article 101 TFEU is broadly as follows: in addition, vertical agreements appear to be more effective in commercial activities. The most common vertical restraints are: Article 4 of Law No. 4054 on the Protection of Competition (the «Competition Law») prohibits any agreement between undertakings which has as its aim or may have the effect of preventing, restricting or distorting competition. Of the above types of chords, vertical chords are the most frequently tested. Vertical restraints, such as resale price maintenance (RPM), most-favoured-nation clauses, exclusive trade agreements, rebate regimes, non-competition clauses and reverse non-competition clauses, often have results in the application of Turkish law. However, vertical agreements may present a risk of competition if, for example. B barriers to entry multiply if competition is reduced or mitigated, and other possibilities if horizontal agreements are facilitated.  A vertical agreement is a term used in competition law to refer to agreements between companies at different levels of the supply chain.
For example, a consumer electronics manufacturer could enter into a vertical agreement with a retailer under which the retailer would advertise its products against a price drop. Franchising is a form of vertical agreement that falls within the scope of Article 101 under EU competition law.  Vertical agreements which fulfil the conditions for exemption and which do not contain `hardcore restrictions` of competition are exempted from the prohibition in Article 101(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union by Regulation (EC) No 330/2010 . The most important exception concerns motor vehicle distribution agreements which, in accordance with an agreement established by Regulation (EC) No Regulation (EC) No 1400/2002  has been extended by three years until 31 May 2013 .  Although from 1 June 2013 Regulation 330/2010 applies to agreements relating to the repair of motor vehicles and the distribution of spare parts, Regulation No 330 adds three additional «hardcore» clauses. possibly in exchange for lower prices….